SUKHDEV By VGRL Full Book Summary 2023

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About Book

This book gives an insight into the life and journey of Sukhdev Thapar, one of the many gems of India, who freed the country from the clutches of British rule and laid the foundation of a free and strong India.

Who Should Read This Book

Every man who wants to know about the patriots who got freedom. One that wants to honor the memory of those who gave us the free country we live in today.

SUKHDEV By VGRL Full Book Summary 2023

Today we live in independent India. But earlier it was not so. India remained a slave for many years. Our motherland used to be ruled by an oppressive regime that didn’t care about the people at all. All of them exploited our country and harassed our countrymen for their own happiness and comfort.

But we were not the ones to suffer silently. This land that was forced into slavery has produced many patriots who laid down their lives for their country and for what was right. He even shed his blood and sweat to liberate his motherland. Although we remember many people who participated in the freedom struggle, many have been forgotten by us over time. So let us remember one such brave warrior Sukhdev, learn about him and salute his bravery.

It is about 15 May 1907. Sukhdev was born in Naugarh Ludhiana to Ramlal and Ralli Devi Thapar. When Sukhdev was born, India was under British rule, and its effect was visible everywhere. Everyone was unhappy with the British. From his childhood, his parents taught him that never “tolerate oppression and never bow before tyranny”. They were taught to fight injustice. This was an important lesson that he learned in his childhood. Who shaped their future and showed the way to India’s independence.

After his parents passed away, Sukhdev was brought up by his uncle, Lala Achintram, who was very much like his parents. Sukhdev became a special member of HSRA (Hindustan Socialist Republican Association) who was fighting for the independence of the country. This organization was responsible for the revolutionary events taking place in Punjab and North India.

Sukhdev took admission in the college of Lahore. While he was studying there, he realized that his fellow students were completely oblivious to the happenings around them, they had no idea what was happening in their country. They were unaware of the glorious history of India. Sukhdev grew up in a household where patriotism was given the highest place, which kindled in him the fire to do something for the country and uphold its honour. But he knew that this passion would be of no use if he could not kindle the same fire inside his friends.

He felt that at this time the youth of India need to be told about the past of India and there is a need to instill in them the courage to fight for a better future. So, he started giving speeches in his college. He started reminding the people of that college about the golden history of India. He started instilling in them the spirit of standing up for their motherland. His words inspired many youths who later joined the fight for their country.

When India was fighting for freedom, there was a group of people and all these people were fighting in their own way. Some people were thinking that they can liberate the country without fighting and they followed the path told by Mahatma Gandhi and obeyed his words with great love. Then came poets and writers like Rabindranath Tagore, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam, who tried to convince people through their written thoughts. Then Sarojini Naidu worked to educate women and improve their condition.

After that, there were great people like Babasaheb Ambedkar who were trying to improve the condition of Dalits. And then there was the thinking of the nationalists that British rule could be brought down only by force. Those who came forward with this thought were Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, and many more.

The methods were definitely different, but the goal of all was the same “self-rule” i.e. “Swarajya”. All these created a fear of ending the British Empire in India.

Sukhdev believed that he was like the patriots who believed in fighting. He believed that he would need to use force for independence. Now, most people have a misconception that people who fight with strength are wild and brutal. While this is completely beyond the truth.

To be honest, Sukhdev was very intelligent and had read world literature. He especially paid a lot of attention to the literature revolving around the Russian Revolution. They had some hopes from these revolutions that how they can liberate their country.

Sukhdev saw that the country needed such an organization, so that people could know about the happenings around them, so that they would be able to show them the way to fight against the atrocities. Therefore, he along with Bhagat Singh, Ramchandra and Bhagwati Vohra started the “Naujawan Bharat Sabha” in Lahore. The first objective of starting this organization was to prepare the youth to die for the country. However, this was not the only goal.

He saw that the people around him were not educated and were superstitious. So, he thought of telling people about science. He saw that due to the different thinking of religion, there were conflicts by implementing the divide and rule policy, so his next motive was to raise his voice against the fighting in the name of caste. It also came to his notice that the people of India were discriminating against each other, so his ultimate goal was to “abolish the evil custom of untouchability”.

Not only this, as a special revolutionary of the Hindustan Socialist Republican Association, he along with Bhagat Singh and Shivram Rajguru was running many agitations against the British Government.

His frequent revolutions had become a big trouble for the British government. Not only these three people were the reason for his problem, but many other revolutionaries also started coming forward at this time.

On 17 December 1928, the British government started getting major setbacks. At this time, the struggle for independence was at its peak. Elder leaders like Lala Lajpat Rai were trying their best to destroy the roots of the British Empire. In 1928, the British government sent the Simon Commission to India to reform the society and do some good. Because in the Indian commission, there was not a single Indian in the committee so, people were protesting everywhere to send back the Simon commission and in an attempt to fight against it, Lala Lajpat Rai was conducting the protest peacefully.

However, the British had ordered lathi charge on this peaceful protest. Lala Lajpat Rai suffered a lot of injuries due to which he died. When the British police were attacking Lala Lajpat Rai, he had said that he should be ready to bear the brunt of their every blow as the result of this attack would come back to him manifold and he was not at all wrong.

People everywhere in the country were very angry with this cruel step. Revolutionaries everywhere came forward to avenge the death of their beloved leader. Sukhdev and his companions in Lahore also did not sit silent. He was deeply saddened by the death of Lala Lajpat Rai, and decided that the time had come to give a befitting reply to the British Government. Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, Chandrashekhar Azad and Rajguru along with many more planned to kill James Scott, the police officer who ordered lathi charge on Lala Lajpat Rai’s peaceful protest.

They made a big plan and decided to kill him on 17 December. It was decided that when he would come out of the police head quater in Lahore, he would be attacked. But due to some misunderstanding on the day of the incident, his spy gave the wrong news of Scott’s arrival and instead he sent assistant superintendent J.P. Saunders was killed. This was the Lahore conspiracy case.

The British authorities neither ignored the move nor took it lightly. They started looking for those who killed Saunders. But he did not get success.

All the revolutionaries who took part in it went into hiding. They were definitely hidden but did not sit silent. He continued his revolutionary work throughout Punjab and many parts of North India. These revolutionary groups troubled the British government and continued to run the freedom movement.

But, the British government was not ready to take a step back. Their atrocities continued, and the revolutionaries felt that now is the time to do something big, and they started working on it.

While they were in hiding, the freedom movement was on. In 1931, Mahatma Gandhi and the Viceroy of India Lord Irwin signed an agreement to end Mahatma Gandhi’s Satyagraha and in return the Viceroy had to meet his demands. When this thing reached London, it was strongly condemned there. They were considering it as an insult to their queen. Much evil was being done for the work that showed the British Empire to be weak.

The British government in India was facing severe evils in Britain.

It seemed as if the British were seeing the end of their rule over India. He wanted to win back the trust of his people and show his might.

Meanwhile, Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, Rajguru, and others were playing hide and seek with the British. His revolutionary groups created trouble all over Punjab and North India. But he could not escape for long as the police was looking for him.

Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, Batukeshwar Dutta, Rajguru and the freedom fighters decided to attack the Central Legislative Assembly. While the assembly was going on, they hurled two bombs.

These revolutionaries had no intention of killing or injuring anyone. He just wanted to make people realize that they too have power and they too can use it. So, when he threw a bomb in the assembly, he just wanted to make his voice heard to the deaf government.

Sukhdev and others were educated and they knew how to do it.

Unfortunately, Bhagat Singh and Batukeshwar Dutta were caught, the rest managed to escape. Both were arrested by the police and sentenced to death. While he was in jail, he appealed to the court for release which was refused as the British government wanted to keep him in jail.

When Bhagat Singh was in jail, it came to light that J.P. He and his accomplices were also responsible for the murder of Saunders. Now the British government has lost itself. The British government was eager to show that they had not lost their power and arresting revolutionaries like Sukhdev was telling their victory.

 Soon they arrested Sukhdev, Rajguru and fourteen others. The British were happy about the arrest and even though the six men of their group were still not found, they wanted to use it to instil fear among the people. Therefore, the next day the newspaper headline was ‘Sukhdev Vs British Government’.

Senior Superintendent of Police Hamilton Harding R.J. FIR was filed in S Pandit’s court in which Sukhdev was the main accused. The British were happy about the settlement that was taking place and decided to take advantage of this opportunity. Sukhdev and his comrades knew very well that the trial was just a sham and they knew that in the end, they would have to be hanged.

But he didn’t get upset. He thought of taking advantage of that time so that he could further his cause. When Sukhdev was in jail, he saw that the Indian prisoners were being treated much worse and differently than the European prisoners. He wanted to end this and wanted Indian prisoners to have the status of ‘political prisoners’ and be kept at par with European prisoners.

Sukhdev along with Bhagat Singh and his jailed comrades decided to start a long hunger strike. He had a strong resolve during this difficult time. This hunger strike attracted the attention of the people and the media. For the first time hatred towards the British Government was visible among the people.

Jatindra Nath Das died of hunger on the 63rd day of the strike. This made people angry. The strike lasted for 113 days and ended when the Congress leaders asked to call it off.

He knew that the trial was just a sham that was going to end in death penalty, so he was not worried about its outcome. Those people became witnesses in front of him, who were sure proof that he was really JP. was responsible for killing Saunders. So, he decided to take advantage of the court hearing.

When they went to the court, Sukhdev and his fellow revolutionaries would sing patriotic songs and raise slogans in the middle of the hearing. They were not bothered about what the judge was saying or the direction the trial was going because they already knew that the death sentence was inevitable. They tried to prolong the hearing as much as they could so that they could leave a lasting impression.

Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, and Rajguru became the strongest in the fight against the British. People started connecting with him and started taking his opinion to move forward in the right direction. Even when he was in jail, he prepared thousands of people to fight.

Sukhdev was very intelligent. He used to think far away. There is an anecdote, which shows this, when he wrote a letter to Mahatma Gandhi. He knew that Mahatma Gandhi was a follower of non-violence and did not agree with the path he had chosen, which later became the cause of his death.

But, he wrote a letter telling how his death would benefit the country. He knew that people would come forward inspired by it and death was the price he was paying for the freedom of his people and his country.

People gave him and his companions so much respect that their heart was filled. Thousands of people stood by his side outside the jail. In the end, the court sentenced Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, and Shivram Rajguru to death. He was to be hanged on 24 March 1931. The rest of his accomplices were given sentences ranging from 3 to 10 years.

The British government feared the influence of Sukhdev, Bhagat Singh, and Rajguru on their people. So, they decided to hang him on the night of 23rd

The plan didn’t turn out as successful as he thought. People were afraid that the British officials would do something similar, so the people of the jail were awake all night.

Sukhdev and his comrades embraced death with slogans of ‘Inquilab Zindabad’. He was secretly cremated on the banks of Sutlej river. Even his family members could not find his dead body.

Congress leaders called this act of cowardice very bad. Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar strongly condemned the British Government and said with great anger that they had not done justice. He had done this act to set his feet firmly.

As Sukhdev had said in his letter to Mahatma Gandhi, the death of his patriots had filled the minds of the people with resentment, which in turn weakened the British hold on India. This gave courage to many more people to come forward and be a part of the freedom movement.

It is very difficult to find people like Sukhdev. His unflinching love and passion for his country along with his innovative ideas made him a gem. He was not only a revolutionary, but also extremely intelligent. He did not believe in fighting without any reason and used to take his decisions very carefully. He was only twenty-three years old when he was hanged and to have wisdom and bravery at such a young age is commendable. Right from his college days, he kept fighting against injustice in different ways.

A martyr’s memorial was built where he was cremated. Martyr’s Day is celebrated in his memory on 23 March.

But, even today he is one of those patriots who fought for our country but about whom not much is said and somewhere we have forgotten him. If Sukhdev and many people like him had not done this, our country would not have been free even today. Their debt is on us and will always be. He gave up his life so that we don’t have to fight for our freedom today. We must honor his legacy and sacrifice. But, how can we do it?

We can do this in our life by following the path shown by him. He was a visionary who understood the importance of education and unity. He was courageous and brave. That’s why we should follow the path which he has shown us. No matter how successful we become, we must do what is right and never be a mute spectator, always stand up against injustice. Don’t let their sacrifice go in vain. To keep his memory alive, we should adopt the thoughts he told.

Finally, if you have reached the end of this summary, then Congratulations, there are very few people who invest time on knowledge, otherwise you could have wasted time elsewhere. See you soon with a new summary

Jai Hind

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